APA Style

Here you will find examples and information about the general guidelines and requirements when using APA.

APA Quick Guide

APA Guidelines

In general:

  • All entries should be DOUBLE-SPACED.
  • Any subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch.
  • Alphabetize your list by the authors' last names. If you have more than one entry for an author, the entries should be arranged by date, beginning with the earliest.

APA Style Citation Examples


IN-TEXT CITATIONS APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.

Short Quotations

  • Smith (2006) argues “...” (p. 112).
  • This is described as, “…” (Smith, 2006, pp. 112-4).

Long Quotations

 Text of 40 words or longer is placed in a text block without quotes with an indentation of 1/2" from the left margin.

Summary or Paraphrase

  • Smith (2006) suggested this too.
  • This fact has been stated... (Smith, 2006)

Multiple authors

  • More than one author with same last name: ​P. L. Smith (2003) and J. M. Smith (2005)
  • More than one author in text : Smith and Lee agree that (2006)
  • More than one author in reference: Studies suggest... (Smith & Long, 2006).

Multiple works

  • Critics agree ... (Smith, 2006; Lee, 2004).
  • More than one work by same author published the same year
    • The evidence suggests ... (Smith, 2006a; Smith, 2006b; Smith, 2006c)
    • Smith (2006a) believes ...



Last Name, F. M. (YEAR). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

One author     

Bickle, M. C. (2011). Fashion marketing: theory, principles, & practice. New York: Fairchild Books.

Two authors     

Kemp-Gatterson, B., & Stewart, B. L. (2009). Apparel: concepts and practical applications. New York: Fairchild Books.

Three to seven authors

Aguiar, L. M., Tomic, P., & Trumper, R. (2019). Apparel: concepts and practical applications. New York: Fairchild Books.


Last Name, F. M., Last Name 2, F. M., & Last Name 3, F. M. (YEAR). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume Number(Issue Number), page numbers. Retrieved from . . . 

One author  

Fonjong, L. (2001). Fostering women’s participation in development through non-governmental efforts in Cameroon. The Geographical Journal, 167(3), 223-234. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0016-7398


Two authors   

Zhang, H., & Merikangas, K. (2000). A frailty model of segregation analysis: Understanding the familial transmission of alcoholism. Biometrics, 56(3), 815-823. Retrieved from http://www.biometrics.tibs.org/


Three to seven authors

Skov, M. W., Hartnoll, R. G., Ruwa, R. K., Shunula, J. P., Vannini, M., & Cannicci, S. (2005). Marching to a different drummer: Crabs synchronize reproduction to a 14-month lunar-tidal cycle. Ecology, 86(5), 1164-1171. Retrieved from http://www.esajournals.org/loi/ecol


Entire Website 
When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the website in the text of your paper. Example: The Jack C. Taylor Library homepage presents a wealth of resources to help students meet their research needs (http://www.library.fontbonne.edu/home).


Article on a Website

Name of website. (Date). Title of individual article. Retrieved month day year, from URL

Wetlands Restoration Project. (2003). Atlantic global marsh thrives under new protection. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.wetlands.org/atlantic_global_marsh.html 


YouTube Video / Video Blog Post**

Lustig, R. H. (2009, July 30). Sugar: The bitter truth [Video file]. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM

**If author’s full name is not provided, you can use the screenname of the person posting the video.


Blog Post

Greenslate, C., & Leonard, K. (2009, October 10). Stephanie Smith, differences in aid, and Paul Farmer [Web log post]. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://onedollardietproject.wordpress.com/ 



Coulter, D. (Producer). (2009, October 7). Microwaving water from moondust @NASA. Podcast. [Audio podcast]. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://science.nasa.gov


For more see: How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style.

APA Resources @ the Library

Online Citation Tools

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