APA Style Guide

Here you will find examples and information about the general guidelines and requirements when using APA.

Additional Tips

Cities, States, and Countries: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (e.g., "Brisbane, Australia").

Place of publication: Separate place of publication from publisher with a colon (for example "New York, NY: Zone Books"). If more than one city is given, list only the first.

Publisher names: "Co.", "Inc." and related abbreviations should not be included in citations (for example, "Ivan R. Dee, Inc." should be given as "Ivan R. Dee").

@ the Library: eBooks

What is a CITATION?

citation is a listing of a book, journal article, web resource, or other document in such a way that the user can identify it and find it. They can be  found in:

  • Online databases, such as Academic Search or JSTOR
  • Lists of references or bibliographies at the end of a journal article or book

We need to create citations when we are asked to provide a bibliography or Works Cited list for a research essay.

General Guidelines

APA - Basic Components of a Source

All entries should be DOUBLE-SPACED and the second and any subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch. Alphabetize your list by the authors' last names. If you have more than one entry for an author, the entries should be arranged by date, beginning with the earliest.

References for books and articles require specific components. The sequencing of these components is prescribed by APA. Consistent ordering is important to avoid confusion and to help your reader find information. 

Books Journal
Newspaper Articles Websites


Author(s) Author(s) Author(s)
Date (year) Date (year) Date (year, month day) Date (year, use n.d. if none)
Chapter title (optional) Article title Article title Website title
Editor(s) (if given) Title of Journal Title of Newspaper Retrieval statement (always necessary)
Book title Volume Pagination (use p. or pp.)  
Edition (if given) Issue (if given) Retrieval statement (when necessary)  
Volume (if given) Pagination    
(when citing a chapter)
Retrieval statement (when necessary)    
Place of publication      
Retrieval statement (when necessary)          

NB: Always be sure to use a hanging indent when adding citations to your References page or any formal bibliography list (i.e., indent the second and any subsequent lines). 

@ the Library

General APA Guidelines

Use these basic guidelines when preparing your final draft:

  • Prefer white, 8-1/2 by 11-inch paper. Use 1-inch margins at top, bottom, left, and right (1 inch = 2.5cm).
  • Choose a clean, 12-point font like Times New Roman. Double-space the text throughout; do NOT justify.
  • Include a header on the top of every page. In the header, you should have a page number (align right) and a short version of your paper’s title in uppercase (align left).

Your paper should have 4 major sections:

  1. Title page
  2. Abstract page
  3. Main body
  4. References

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