Three major systems of in-text references are used by medical publishers:
- In text, numbers (superscripts) are used to refer to the work in the reference list
- In reference list, list references in the order they first appear in the text
- In text, numbers are used to refer to the reference list
- In reference list, list references alphabetically
- In text, surname of the author and the year of publication, such as (Smith 2006).
- In reference list, ordered first by author and then year.
See Citing Medicine for a full list of citation formats and examples.
BASIC ARTICLE FORMAT:
Online Journal Article
Lalau JD, Arnouts P, Sharif A, De Broe ME. Metformin and other antidiabetic agents in renal failure patients. Kidney Int [Internet]. 2015 Feb [cited 2018 Aug 6];87(2):308-22. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0085253815300429?via%3Dihub
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
Journal Article (more than 6 authors)
Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002 Jul 5;943(1):15-22.
Journal Article (organization as author)
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
BASIC BOOK FORMAT:
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Neuman WL. Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson Education; 2006. Chapter 5, The literature review and ethical concerns; p. 110-48.
Authored Book Chapter
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
WEBSITE BASIC FORMAT
Part of a Website
American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html