Citing Sources


Chicago Style

Chicago-style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. See the description and Quick Guides below for each.

Chicago Style Quick Guides 17th edition

The notes and bibliography (quick guide) system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.

The author-date (quick guide) system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

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