Citing Sources

NLM/Vancouver Examples

NLM / Vancouver Style 

Vancouver Style was created in 1978 by a group of editors of medical journals. This group evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)Since 2007, the ICMJE has referred to the detailed style guide from the National Library of Medicine, Citing Medicine, for formatting citation. Institutions and publishers have adapted the style to meet their needs, so there currently is no single version of Vancouver style.

Always check with your instructor for the correct formatting.


Three major systems of in-text references are used by medical publishers. Check with your instructor or publisher for correct formatting.

  • citation-sequence
    • In text, numbers (superscripts) are used to refer to the work in the reference list
    • In reference list, list references in the order they first appear in the text
  • citation-name
    • In text, numbers are used to refer to the reference list
    • In reference list, list references alphabetically
  • name-year
    • In text, surname of the author and the year of publication, such as (Smith 2006).
    • In reference list, ordered first by author and then year.



See Citing Medicine for a full list of citation formats and examples.


Online Journal Article

Lalau JD, Arnouts P, Sharif A, De Broe ME. Metformin and other antidiabetic agents in renal failure patients. Kidney Int [Internet]. 2015 Feb [cited 2018 Aug 6];87(2):308-22. Available from:

Journal Article

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

Journal Article (more than 6 authors)

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002 Jul 5;943(1):15-22.

Journal Article (organization as author)

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.



Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Book Chapter

Neuman WL. Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson Education; 2006. Chapter 5, The literature review and ethical concerns; p. 110-48.

Authored Book Chapter

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.


Conference Proceeding

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.


Part of a Website

American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:



Citing Medicine, 2nd ed. - Guide for the NLM/Vancouver Style

Wiley-Blackwell House Style Guide

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